The term ‘the Balkans’ is used to cover various states in the region, including Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,  Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Moldova and Hungary. Italy also has a small territory on the Balkan Peninsula. The ENT societies of the Balkan countries established the Balkan ORL Association.

The term ‘Central Asia’ includes the countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Azerbaycan is also considered a part of the West Central Asian Area. These countries came together and established Central Asian ORL Societies.

Both the Balkan ORL and Central Asian ORL Societies have many similarities and problems. The aim of the societies is to support ENT departments in having modern medical and diagnostic equipment and tools as far as is possible. The education systems need revision, and the training should be done more effectively. More regular exchange of knowledge and skills of ENT specialists between departments and countries, and through advanced courses, should be organised. Both associations are very willing to work to this purpose by bringing the teachers, residents and fellows together to share knowledge and information.

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