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157 results found

Identifying CN IX and X using endotracheal tube electrodes

This clinical study describes the possible usefulness of endotracheal tube electrodes in monitoring vocal cord function during cerebellopontine angle surgery in 20 patients. Lower cranial nerves, especially IX and X are at risk of injury during skull base surgery although...

Evidence based guidelines for ONS treatment in occipital neuralgia

Occipital neuralgia (ON) can flummox otolaryngologists especially when it follows mastoid surgery. The paroxysms of sharp, electrical pain originating from the occiput can extend along the posterior aspect of the scalp and even up to the mastoid. Although the aetiology...

CSF leak – endoscopic or open repair?

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhoea is well known to the ENT surgeon. It commonly occurs secondary to a predisposing event such as accidental or iatrogenic trauma. When it occurs spontaneously, it can be associated with benign intracranial hypertension. The commonest CSF...

Does vestibular rehabilitation help patients with vestibular migraine? Is this also true if these patients have had a traumatic brain injury?

Vestibular migraine (VM) is a common diagnosis in ENT, and there is growing evidence that vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) is an effective treatment, reducing self-perceived dizziness and improving gait. This is a retrospective review of the outcomes of 93 patients...

Neuromodulation in drug resistant epilepsy

Treatment of epilepsy can be considered generally as medical or surgical. Anti-epileptic drugs achieve a five-year seizure freedom in 54-70% patients. It is estimated that 50-90% of patients with drug-refractory epilepsy may not be candidates for resective surgery. For example,...

Preoperative prediction of pain outcomes in patients with trigeminal neuralgia

The authors of this retrospective study have developed a preoperative trigeminal neuralgia (TN) grading system for the preoperative prediction of long-term pain relief after microvascular decompression (MVD). Patients who had become refractory to or developed toxicity to carbamazepine or oxycarbamazepine...

Prolactinomas: when to operate

Prolactinomas are the most common functional pituitary adenomas, comprising 40% of all pituitary adenomas. There are consensus guidelines and several common management pathways. This article discusses the role of surgery for these patients. Following diagnosis, the goals of treatment are...

3D endoscopy in pituitary adenoma surgery

Endoscopic approach for pituitary adenoma surgery is well recognised. There has been recent refinement of 3D endoscopy technology which improves on the depth of vision offered and more compact delivery. This may improve visualisation of the critical structures involved in...

Peripheral nerve stimulation for chronic refractory pain

Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) plays an important role in treating chronic refractory pain syndromes that manifest in limited distributions and overlap with areas of neurologic innervation. The process is generally thought to capitalise on the inhibition and activation of pain-related...

DVT prophylaxis in cranial procedures

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a result of disturbed balances in blood flow patterns, blood clotting factors promoting coagulation and vessel wall endothelial injury. The subsequent disruption of coagulation and fibrinolysis mechanisms lead to venous clot formation and propagation. The...

Cerebrospinal fluid leaks after vestibular schwannoma surgery

This study analyses 30-day readmission data after vestibular schwannoma surgery using a multicentre longitudinal State of California dataset. The authors studied risk factors, and timing of readmission in 6820 patients over 15 years. Of these, 490 readmissions were reported for...

Neurological complications associated with managing degenerative cervical myelopathy

Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is a common neuropathologic status due to degenerative changes to the cervical spine. There are multiple operative techniques available, including anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, anterior cervical corpectomy, laminoplasty, laminectomy and laminectomy with fusion. C5 palsy...