Chronic facial pain: types and long-term treatment

This publication discusses the details and differences between chronic tension type headache and migraine and followed a cohort of 240 patients over 36 months. The authors applied strict criteria to distinguish between chronic tension headache and migraine, these essentially being...

Association of sinonasal symptoms with ear disease

The study explores the possible association of sinonasal symptoms with ear disease. The subjects were patients with ear problems which were categorised as group A – patients with external ear problems (15%), group B1 – patients with middle ear mucosal...

Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) in posterior laryngitis

The authors of this study investigated the prevalence of acid reflux in the proximal oesophagus and functional gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with posterior laryngitis. They analysed plasma motilin as well as health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaires before and after...

Possibility of noise induced hearing loss during middle ear suction for secretory otitis media

Emission of high intensity sound is dangerous to the cochlea and can result in noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). Removal of middle ear fluid is common in everyday practice and the possibility of inducing NIHL is seldom considered and not...

Use of tranexamic acid in ENT surgery

Postoperative bleeding in otolaryngologic procedures causes delayed discharge, requires re-admission and adds considerably to the cost of patient care. Whether the anti-fibrinolytic activity of tranexamic acid should be used routinely to prevent haemorrhagic complications after ENT operations is speculation but...

Anatomic guidelines to endolymphatic sac in transmastoid approach – a cadaveric study

This study involved cadaveric dissection using transmastoid approach in cadaveric embalmed five half heads and posterior fossa approach in fourteen. The sac was identified by electron microscopy. The relatively consistent measurements were the relationship of the operculum to the internal...

The anatomy and actual number of branches of the sphenopalatine artery: surgical implications

Endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation or cauterisation is nowadays the main treatment for epistaxis unresponsive to medical therapy. However, on review of the literature, there appears to be confusion relating to the anatomical nomenclature of the sphenopalatine artery branches and more...

Swallowing outcomes following partial laryngectomy: objective assessment and pre-operative predictive factors

Partial laryngectomy constitutes one of the treatments for early stage glottic carcinoma (i.e. T1N0 and T2N0) in specialised centres. Over the years, several partial laryngectomy and reconstruction techniques have been described in the literature. The choice of technique depends on...

Ideal terminology for unexplained paediatric language problems

This paper aims to open a discussion about the different labels being used to refer to children’s unexplained language impairments. A wide range of terminology has been applied creating confusion, impeding progress of research and access to appropriate services. For...

Friendly bacteria in the ear nose and throat to combat the bad…

The author presents a thorough review of bacterial interference and the studies that have been conducted in common ENT conditions. The simple concept is that a strong population of normal flora will interfere with colonisation and subsequent infection by pathogenic...

Factors affecting the occurrence of salivary fistula after total laryngectomy

It is generally believed that patients should be fed by nasogastric tube for 7-10 days after undergoing total laryngectomy or laryngopharyngectomy to avoid the occurrence of post-operative salivary fistula. This study challenges this belief and looks into various factors that...

Application of paper patching in patulous eustachian tube

The condition of patulous eustachian tube, as opposed to dysfunctional eustachian tube, is less frequently diagnosed. Symptoms related to this, such as autophony, aural fullness, ‘being under water’, ‘hearing their own breathing’, and hearing sensitivity (varying in either direction) can...