This is a concise summary of auditory neuropathy and current knowledge of the disorder through review of a recently published article. The terminology of this hearing disorder implies the site of the lesion is neural; however the characteristic electrophysical signature of the condition can occur in patients with pre or post synaptic lesions. The actual functional auditory ability of individual patients is varied. The term ‘auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder’ is now being adopted to reflect the heterogeneity of the causes, site of lesion and the auditory capability of individually affected patients. Several objective measurements hold promise in helping to identify the site of the lesion and thus helping to target treatment. Hearing aids can be beneficial for these patients, as can cochlear implantation, but the response is variable, particularly in patients with post-synaptic disorders. The article concludes by alluding to the mysteries that still surround the disorder – there is a challenge in accurately identifying the site of the lesion and in quantifying the degree or severity; furthermore there is a challenge in selecting and optimising the most appropriate intervention strategy for individual patients. Clearly further studies into auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder are needed for the future.