Facial nerve anatomy in the temporal bone

Knowledge of the facial nerve anatomy during otological surgery is crucial in avoiding an iatrogenic injury to the facial nerve. In this study, the authors investigated the anatomical relationship between the tympanic portion of the facial canal (FC) and the...

Management of patients with advanced otosclerosis

This paper discusses the management options of advanced otosclerosis. There are several definitions for advanced otosclerosis in the literature but, more recently, the diagnosis of advanced otoscletosis has been reserved for patients who have less than 30% aided speech discrimination...

Righting the paralysed lip

Many surgical procedures that otolaryngologists perform put the facial nerve at risk of injury, a complication that the surgeon and patient fear alike. Unfortunately, injuries to the nerve can and do happen despite adequate precautions, and facial paralysis may be...

3D ultrasonography for evaluation of muscles following facial palsy

Reconstructive surgery for facial nerve palsies is not recommended beyond two to three years after a degenerative facial nerve lesion. Since the time course of muscle atrophy is variable, this timeline is a rough guideline. The only assessment method currently...