Speculating on saliva during endoscopy

It has been noted that the presence of saliva in the pharynx and larynx during flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) can be an indicator of increased risk of aspiration and consequent pneumonia, as well as weight loss and malnutrition....

Reliability of Koos classification

Vestibular schwannoma (VS) tumour size has been considered the primary determinant of hearing outcomes and facial nerve function according to several published studies. Varying methods are used to estimate the size and volume of the VS with very little consensus...

Narrow band imaging improves diagnosis of malignant laryngeal lesions

The manufacturers of narrow band imaging (NBI) claim better visualisation of mucosal abnormalities when compared with simple white light. The primary aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of NBI and white light to diagnose malignant laryngeal...

Swallow assessment: is clinical judgement or objective measurement more reliable?

Swallowing difficulties are life threatening and are the most common referral reason to speech and language therapists working with the adult population. Video fluoroscopic examination is a common instrumental tool used to assist in the assessment of the risk of...