Twenty mid-sagittal head sections of 10 fresh frozen cadavers were studied after removal of the nasal septum. This study showed that the most anterior projection of the middle turbinate head was noted to be anterior to the nasolacrimal duct in 70% of specimens. In positional relationship, the maxillary line was posterior to the nasolacrimal duct in 55%, whereas the bulla ethmoidalis and the free edge of uncinate process were uniformly posterior to the nasolacrimal duct in all the specimens. This study provides useful anatomic and positional relationships between the nasolacrimal duct and the major lateral wall landmarks. Although the maxillary line and the head of the middle turbinate are often considered useful guides to the position of the ipsilateral nasolacrimal duct, their spatial relationship to the duct is not consistent. These landmarks, therefore, cannot be solely relied upon during surgery to avoid injury to the nasolacrimal duct.

Anatomic relationship of nasolacrimal duct and major lateral wall landmarks: cadaveric study with surgical implications.
Ali MJ, Nayak JV, Vaezeafshar R, et al.
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Laith Tapponi

Wiltshire, UK.

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