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As we put together the Editors’ Choice for Jul/Aug 2022 Journal Reviews, news from a meeting of the G7 energy and environment ministers has been shared that the G7 countries are to stop public funding of any overseas fossil fuel development from the end of this year. On the face of it, this feels like a big step towards limiting global warming to the Paris climate accord target of less than a 2°C temperature rise, alongside a hope that the announcement will drive investment in clean renewable energy sources. However, given that the above funding changes will only be implemented at the end of 2022, a number of so-called ‘carbon bomb’ projects currently underway are likely to continue. These oil and gas projects are predicted to produce over 600Gt of CO2, significantly exceeding the threshold of 500Gt. Global emissions must remain below this level to have a 50% chance of preventing 1.5°C of global warming. We are all more than aware of the effects climate change will have on weather, sea levels and diversity of life on earth - animal, plant and human. The Editor's Choice article highlights the effects of climate change and air pollution on global health. The article makes for grim reading; it details the risks to nasal and respiratory health, mortality, and changes in vector-borne diseases. It is encouraging to see reporting on the climate crisis is making its way to specialty journals. It highlights that we all have a role to play in limiting our environmental impact as individuals, departments and organisations. As always thank you to all our reviewers for their hard work and contributions!

Nazia Munir and Hannah Cooper



According to the 2021 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities are responsible for approximately 1.1°C of warming since 1850. The most optimistic scenario for the future predicts that sea levels are projected to rise around 0.38m and global warming to be 1.0-1.8°C by 2081-2100. The probability of staying below 2°C of warming by 2100 is only 5% currently. This is a narrative review showing the effects of climate change on global health. Authors described the following effects of climate change: with elevated CO2 levels, increased pollen production in plants and proliferation of spores from moulds are observed, leading with air pollution to the onset and aggravation of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Wildfires have become increasingly frequent and severe with climate change. Their effects range from injuries and illnesses due to direct exposure to flames, heat, or smoke deposition of toxicants in the environment; diminished access to or disrupted medical care; and population displacement. Additionally, climate change is increasing the likelihood and intensity of flooding, now occurring 30% more frequently. In the aftermath of floodings, there is increased fungal growth and mould spores and higher indoor aeroallergen exposure. As water sources dry up, soils aerosolise, increasing airborne pollution and dust storms, posing risks for respiratory health and mortality. It is estimated that up to 50% of tropospheric aerosols are made up of desert dust. Less than 10% of the world plastic is recycled. Much of plastic waste is burned, leading to air pollution, airborne toxins, and the release of more greenhouse gasses. The rest ends up in landfills, releasing pollutants into soils and water sources, or in the oceans leading to the ubiquitous ingestion of microplastics. Climate change also impacts the prevalence, incidence, and mortality of some vector-borne diseases by altering their geographic distribution. Finally, extreme storms, floods, wildfires, droughts, sea level rise, and heat will render nearly a fifth of the planet too hot for humans by 2070. Authors finished by calling for a global action to tackle health effects of climate change. The authors drew a gloomy picture of the effects of climate change. The concerning aspect of this picture is that it is current and progressing day by day. It is important to highlight the urgency of the matter especially in the current political climate.

Climate change and global health: A call to more research and more action.
Agache I, Sampath V, Aguilera J, et al.
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Hassan Mohammed

North East Deanery, Newcastle, UK.

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